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How many types of chemical bonds are there?

Last updated date: 01st Mar 2024
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IVSAT 2024
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Hint:The interactions between elements depends on how their electrons are arranged and how many openings for electrons are present at the outermost region where electrons are present in an atom. There are shells present around the nucleus of an atom which exists as energy levels. The shell closest to the nucleus can hold only two electrons. The closest shell fills first with electrons and then the outer ones in a particular order.

Complete step-by-step answer:Chemical bonds are made due to the connections which occur between atoms present in a molecule. The bonds present are both strong intramolecular interactions, such as covalent and ionic bonds. There are metallic bonds present in metals. There are other bonds which form due to weaker intermolecular forces which are present between atoms and these are dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding and the London dispersion forces.

The main three chemical bonds are:
1.Ionic bonds
-Present between atoms and are forms due to the exchange of valence electrons.
-Can occur between both metals and nonmetals.
-Loss or gain of valence electrons occur.
-Ions formed obey octet rule and become more stable.
-Ionic compounds formed are neutral .
-Ions combine in ways that neutralise their charges.
2.Covalent bonds
-They involve two atoms, usually nonmetals.
-Sharing of electron density among atoms and leading to the formation of strong binding interactions.
-Include single, double and triple bonds.
-There are sigma and pi bonding interactions present.
-Covalent compounds are known to have lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.
3.Metallic bonds
-Formed due to moving electrons present in metals.
-Atoms of metals arranged in lattice consist of cations and free electrons.
-Can be thought of as a cloud of positively charged ions immersed in a cloud of valence electrons.

Note: When we talk about hydrogen, it has only one electron present in its atom and thus there is only one electron present in the orbitals of hydrogen. Helium consist of two electrons thus its first shell is completely filled which makes helium unreactive and thus an inert or noble gas. As we keep adding electrons, the shells keep filling.
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