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What type of solvents are water and ethanol?

Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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Hint: We have to know that the chemical formula for ethanol is \[{C_2}{H_5}OH\], it is an alcohol since it contains hydroxyl group i.e. \[O - H\]and water has a formula \[{H_2}O\], the structure of water has one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms electrons are shared between oxygen and hydrogen atoms and thus the bond is formed.

Complete answer:
We need to remember that the solvent is any substance in which a solute is dissolved. There is a rule which says that like dissolves like which means polar molecules dissolves polar molecules whereas non polar dissolves non polar molecule. Water is a polar molecule since it has hydrogen bonding in it and sodium chloride is considered to be polar as it has ionic bond in it, thus it is easy to dissolve sodium chloride in water as it dissolves like.
Both water and ethanol come under the category of Polar protic solvent as they are polar molecules due to the presence of \[O - H\] bond. A polar solvent has a hydrogen atom which is attached with more electronegative atom than hydrogen which can be oxygen or nitrogen. Hydrogen atoms are being donated to other polar molecules containing oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Since these electronegative atoms have a lone pair of electrons in them, therefore they participate in sharing and as a result forms a bond between itself and the hydrogen atom.

We need to remember that the polar aprotic solvent is a different class of solvent in which hydrogen bonds are accepted instead of donating. For example: dimethyl ether is a polar aprotic solvent or acetone also can be this type of solvent.
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