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What type of roots are found in Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)?
A. Tuberous
B. Beaded
C. Stilt
D. Nodulous

Last updated date: 15th Jun 2024
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Hint: M. charantia is an annual climbing vine probably native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. It is now widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions on all continents.
It interferes with the growth of a wide range of vegetables, annual, perennial, orchard, and plantation crops by climbing over them, competing for light and possibly for nutrients and water, raising the humidity around their bases, and interfering with access, management, and harvesting.

Complete answer: Tuberous: A tuberous root is an enlarged fleshy root modified as a storage organ with shoots produced at one end and roots produced at the other. Sweet potato is produced from a tuberous root. Botanically, tuberous roots differ from true tubers because tubers are modified stem tissue.
Beaded: These adventitious roots are swollen at frequent intervals. This gives the root a beaded appearance. Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has this kind of root.
Stilt: The aerial, adventitious obliquely growing roots that develop from the lower nodes of the stem to give additional support are called stilt roots. These roots bear several large overlapping root caps called multiple root caps. e.g., Sugarcane, Pandanus, Rhizophora, Sorghum, and Maize.
Nodulous: These roots become swollen at their tips due to accumulation of food e.g., Maranta sp. (Arrowroot), Curcuma amada (Mango – ginger).
So, the answer is B-Beaded.

Note: There are two kinds of roots- tap root and adventitious roots. Sometimes the root performs other functions other than fixation, absorption, and conduction so get modified structurally. Both tap roots and adventitious roots may undergo such modifications.