The test tube baby programme employs which one of the following techniques? A. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) B. Intra uterine insemination (IUI) C. Gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT) D. Zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT) E. All of the above
Hint: Test tube baby programme employs the technique of in vitro fertilization to treat infertility. IVF may be used to overcome female infertility when it is due to problems with the fallopian tubes, making in vivo fertilisation difficult. It can also assist in male infertility, in those cases where there is a defect in sperm quality.
Complete answer:- 1. test-tube baby procedure includes following multiple steps: Induction of Multiple Ovulations (Eggs) Retrieva Preparation Fertilization of the Eggs Embryonic Growth in the Laboratory Transfer of the Embryos into the Fetu 2. ICSI is a technique developed to treat cases of severe male infertility, it can be part of the test-tube baby programme but only in case of male infertility. In the ICSI process, a tiny needle, called a micropipette, is used to inject a single sperm into the center of the egg. With either traditional IVF or ICSI, once fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg (now called an embryo) grows in a laboratory for 1 to 5 days before it is transferred to the woman's uterus (womb). 3. GIFT includes transfer of sperm and eggs into the fallopian tubes. Gamete intrafallopian transfer is a tool of assisted reproductive technology against infertility. Eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, and placed in one of the Fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm. 4. Zygote intrafallopian transfer is an infertility treatment used when a blockage in the fallopian tubes prevents the normal binding of sperm to the egg. Egg cells are removed from a woman's ovaries, and in vitro fertilised. The resulting zygote is placed into the fallopian tube by the use of laparoscopy. ZIFT includes transfer of zygotes into fallopian tubes. 5. IUI involves placing sperm inside a woman's uterus to facilitate fertilization. The most common reasons for IUI are low sperm count or decreased sperm mobility.
So, the correct answer is 'All of the above’.
Note:- Since the fertilised egg (zygote or 8 celled embryo) is directly transferred into the tubes, the procedure is also known as tubal embryo transfer.