Hint: In the 18th century, Carl Linnaeus published a system of classification of living organisms in a hierarchical order. Later, this type of classification was adopted and developed into a modern type of classification. He was the first scientist to develop such a hierarchical nomenclature system that describes not only a single organism but also its closest relatives.
-Scientist Bentham and Hooker proposed their system of classification in the book Genera Plantarum. The book is based on the biggest and natural classification of seed plants. The book does not follow the Darwinian notion as it excludes evolution. Rather they emphasize on the principle of natural affinities.
-The two scientists proposed their system of classification based on their natural observations of characters. The floral character of plants was the common basis of classification.
In this system, the dicot plants are divided into three groups such as - Polypetalae, Gamopetalae and Monochlamydeae.
Another basis of classification was based on the nature and position of the ovary.
-Artificial system of classification was proposed by scientist Carolus Linnaeus.
-The phylogenetic system of classification was introduced by Engler and Prantl.
-Scientist Robert R. Sokal developed the concept of the numerical system of classification using numerical algorithms.
Hence, the correct answer is option (B).
Note: The great scientist Carolus Linnaeus (1707- 1778), is regarded as the “Father of Systematic Botany”. The book published by two scientists Bentham and Hooker, “Genera Plantarum” is a collection of an estimated 97,205 species into 202 families and 7,569 genera.