Hint:The study of living and fossil primates shows that they have descended from a common ancestor and separated from the main stock during Oligocene epoch. The timeline of human evolution is divided into many epochs and periods. The evolution of humans emerged in the Pliocene epoch till the recent epoch (Holocene).
Complete answer: Chimpanzee is the closest living evolutionary relative of man. Man, and apes descended from a common ancestor called proconsul. Australopithecus is the first hominid discovered, which was a man with an ape brain. The different species of Australopithecus, also known as African ape man emerged during the Pliocene epoch. Pliocene epoch is categorised under Tertiary period. The major ancestors of modern man emerged and evolved during the Pleistocene epoch, categorised under the Quaternary period. Homo habilis, also known as skilful or handy man evolved during the early Pleistocene epoch. Homo erectus erectus, also known as Java man evolved during the mid-Pleistocene epoch.
Homo erectus pekinensis, also known as Peking man evolved during the mid-Pleistocene epoch. Homo erectus neanderthalensis, also called as Neanderthal man evolved during the late Pleistocene epoch. Cro-Magnon man and the modern man were found to have evolved during the Recent epoch, which is the Holocene. Understanding the options one by one, (A) Neanderthal man : Neanderthal man evolved and lived during the late Pleistocene epoch. Hence, this is the correct answer. (B) Australopithecus : Australopithecus, also known as African ape man evolved during the Pliocene epoch. This is not the correct answer. (C) Java man : Java man evolved and lived during the early Pleistocene period. This is not the correct answer. (D) Cro-Magnon man : Cro-Magnon man evolved during the recent Holocene epoch. This is not the correct answer.
Therefore, the correct answer option (A) is correct.
Note:Pleistocene epoch is categorised under the period Quaternary and the era Ceonozoic. It is important to remember the correct order of ancestors or pre-historic man of the modern man. Understanding the period of ancestral evolution, their characteristics like cranial capacity, habitat, food habits, and jaw structure is significant in answering this type of question.