Hint: Piezoelectricity is a process of generation of electricity from the application of force, mechanical stress, pressure as well as heat energy. The inverse electricity is used within the assembly of ultrasonic sound waves.
Complete step by step answer:
Piezoelectric materials, crystals and ceramics have the flexibleness to induce a little low potential after they're subjected to mechanical stress, which makes them suitable for a variety of applications, from harnessing sounds to producing electricity. Piezoelectric materials (PM) could also be broadly classified as crystalline, ceramic and polymeric piezoelectric materials. The foremost commonly produced piezoelectric ceramics are lead zirconate titanate (PZT), barium titanate and lead titanate. Gallium nitride and flowers of zinc can also be considered a ceramic due to its relatively wide band gap, which will generate an on the spot polarisation inside their lattice on application of a force. The semiconducting piezoelectric possesses unique advantages like compatibility with the Integrated circuits, semiconductor devices, and other electrical equipment. Further, inorganic ceramic PM have several advantages over single crystal, just like the good thing about fabrication into a diffusion of shapes and sizes as single crystals require cutting along the crystallographic directions, thus minimising the chances of cutting into different shapes. The subsequent class of PM, namely organic polymers like PVDF, have low elastic modulus compared to the inorganic PM.. Moreover, piezoelectric polymeric sensors and actuators, due to their processing flexibility, are often readily manufactured into large areas, and take away a spread of shapes. additionally polymers also exhibit high strength, high impact resistance, low dielectric constant, low elastic stiffness, and tenuity, thereby a high voltage sensitivity which leads to a desirable characteristic along with low acoustic and mechanical impedance, that is very much useful for medical and underwater applications.
-Among the PM, PZT ceramics are popular as they have a high sensitivity. They're however brittle. Moreover, they show low temperature, which lead to problems in terms of applications in harsh and extreme environmental conditions. However, promising is that the mixing of ceramic disks into industrial appliances moulded from plastic. Several approaches towards lead-free ceramic PM are reported, like piezoelectric single crystals (langasite), and ferroelectric ceramics with a perovskite structure and bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics (BLSF), which are extensively researched.
-Quartz is used as piezoelectric material.
-It produces electricity when any mechanical stress in a similar way of pressure is applied on it.
Thus it is also utilized in watches and oscillators. Hence, the right option may well be A.
Note: Piezoelectricity substances can also generate a small amount of voltage, when their shape gets changed. Piezoelectricity is also used in ammunition, for example the RPG-7, which is a rocker propelled grenade launcher uses a piezoelectric fuse, to work.