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Last updated date: 06th Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

The genetically modified (GM) brinjal in India has been developed for

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Hint: Genetically modified crops also known as man-made crops are plants which are used in agriculture, the DNA of the crops or plants which are modified by using genetic engineering methods or techniques. Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the results of sequences hosted by T-DNA vectors.

Complete answer:
Generally, why would someone or farmers nowadays produce modified crops because this is done to protect crops from pests, insects and other diseases which can affect plants resulting in reduced productivity. Also, another major factor seen in crops is their high yielding content, crops tend to produce more and better qualities of content when they were introduced into genetic techniques.
There are several advantages reported in having and consuming these modified crops. Some of the wide varieties of modified crops are paddy, tomato, sorghum, cotton, corn, papaya, brinjal etc.
The aim is to introduce the new traits into the crops is simple as the naturally species of crops are not desired crops have more management problems require more handling and are not pest free having worse environmental effects are not tolerant to chemical treatments, which these genetically modified crops possess. They are reduced to spoilage, can withstand adverse environment conditions, resistance to chemical treatments like a certain herbicide or they have a high nutrient profile.
Lately, farmers have widely adopted GM technology. So, as we discussed above the importance factors merits of these modified crops let us discuss about the modified brinjal crop. The genetically modified BT brinjal (BT means bacillus thuringiensis) in India has been developed mainly for insect or pest resistance. By genetic engineering BT toxin genes were isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and incorporated or inserted into several crop plants.
The eggplant or transgenic brinjals have been created by inserting a crystal protein gene \[\left( {cry1AC} \right)\] from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis into the genes of brinjal cultivars. The insertion of the gene, along with other genetic elements such as promoters, terminators and an antibiotic resistance marker gene into the brinjal plant is accomplished by using agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation.

Hence, The BT brinjal has been modified to give or provide resistance from lepidopteron insects, to be precise its fruit and shoot Borer.

The Effectiveness of the crop against pests is quite satisfactory. The larvae of the insect feed on the BT brinjal plant, they ingest the BT protein \[CryA1C\] along the plant tissue. In the insect gut which is alkaline in nature is solubilized and activated by the gut proteases. The protein binds to specific receptor proteins present in the insect membrane which make pores in the gut resulting in disruption of digestive paralysis and death occurs of the larvae.