Any chemical substance which when burnt in presence of oxygen giving out energy in different forms that can be used for different other activities is known as fuel.
When large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton, and algae, are buried underneath the sedimentary rocks or the sea bed, under high temperature and pressure it gets converted into petroleum and fossil fuel.
A naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid which is obtained beneath the Earth’s surface is petroleum. On fractional distillation of petroleum, we get different types of hydrocarbons which serve as an excellent fuel.
The main components of petroleum are:
LPG is used as fuel in domestic use and industrial purpose.
Petrol is used as a solvent for dry cleaning, motor fuel as well as aviation fuel.
Kerosene is used as a fuel in stoves, lamps, and jet aircraft.
Diesel is used for heavy motor vehicles and generators.
Lubricating oil is used for different lubrication purposes.
Paraffin wax is used in making vaseline, candles, and ointments.
The petroleum-based fuels or the mixture of petroleum products and other synthetic fuels are widely used as aviation fuel. A very important criterion to select fuel for jet crafts is its specific energy or a good calorific value.
Meeting the specifications based on calorific value, lubricity, and density the unleaded kerosene or a naphtha-kerosene blend is the fuel that is used in the jet aircraft. Kerosene based fuels require a much higher temperature to ignite than gasoline-based fuel.
Hence, option b) is the correct answer for the given question.
Note:Natural gas or petroleum are two natural products formed by compressing organic matter. In Pennsylvania, USA, the first oil well in the world was dug. Coal and petroleum are the two non-renewable sources of energy so judicious usage of the same should be done.