Hint: Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid and is essential for the repair of tissues and synthesis of neurotransmitters. It also helps in the synthesis of proteins for skin, ligaments, and tendons. The main sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits such as orange, lemon, and green vegetables such as spinach cabbage, broccoli, etc.
Option A) is correct Deficiency of vitamin C leads to a disease known as scurvy. It is caused due to no or less intake of vitamin C or consumption of a diet that lacks an adequate amount of vitamin C. Other reasons also include anorexia and smoking which decreases absorption of vitamin C. Symptoms of scurvy are fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite, pain in muscles and joints, and fever. At later stages symptoms include bleeding, swollen gums, loosening of teeth, dry skin, bulging eyes, slow healing of wounds, bleeding in muscles and joints, bone growth is affected. Treatment of scurvy includes increased intake of vitamin C from diet or medicinal supplements
Option B) incorrect Rickets are caused due to deficiency of vitamin D. Lack of vitamin D affects bone health and reduces the absorption of calcium and phosphorus by the bone. This disease leads to weakness in the bones which leads to reduced height and growth.
Option C) Incorrect Pyorrhea is a type of gum infection that affects gums and destroys the jaw bone. This disease is caused by lack of hygiene which doesn’t remove bacteria causing an infection that causes weakening of teeth and gradual loss of teeth also.
Option D) Incorrect Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder caused due to a decrease in the absorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 is important for red blood cell production. This disease is caused due to the consumption of a diet that lacks in vitamin B12 or lack IF production.
So, the correct answer is option (A) The deficiency of vitamin C leads to a disease known as scurvy.
Note: Lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy which causes nausea, fatigue, loss of appetite fever and pain in muscles and joints, bleeding and swollen gums bulging eyes. Lack of vitamin D leads to rickets which leads to weakness of bones. Pyorrhea is caused by a bacterial infection that infects gum and teeth. Pernicious anemia is caused due to deficiency of vitamin B-12 and affects red blood cell production.