Questions & Answers

The cytokine barrier among these is
A. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil
B. Monocytes
C. NK cells
D. Interferon
E. Macrophage

Answer Verified Verified
Hint: It is a group of cytokine mediators that are critically involved in alerting the immune system against virus infection of host cells. They are mostly produced by helper T cells.

Complete Answer:
1) Cytokines are a large group of proteins, glycoproteins or peptides that are produced in the cells of the immune system.
2) Cytokines interact with the immune system cells to control the response of the body to disease and infection, as well as to check normal cellular processes in the body.
3) Cytokines regulate inflammation, immunity, and hematopoiesis.
4) They are produced by a diverse group of cells in the body. The name cytokine is a common term; they can be named according to their function, secretion cell, or target of action.
- For instance, cytokines produced by lymphocytes may also be called lymphokines.
- Many lymphokines are also called interleukins, as they are not only secreted by leukocytes but can also affect the cellular response of leukocytes.
- The cytokines that are produced by monocytes or macrophages are known as monokines.

5) The biological action of cytokines is similar to hormones as they are involved in inflammatory response, wound healing, etc. They are distinguished from hormones in the fact that they are not made by special glands but are secreted proteins.
6) Cells that are infected by virus secrete proteins called interferons that protect uninfected cells against further viral infection.

Thus, the correct answer is option D i.e., Interferon.

Note: Cytokines are produced by various cell types, but the dominant producers are helper T-cells (Th) and macrophages. They perform a variety of functions in the body.