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Sporangia and spore bearing leaf in fern is called as-
a. Ramentum
b. Sorus
c. Indusium
d. Sporophyll/frond

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: A capsule structure or enclosure belongs to many plants and fungi which produces and stores reproductive spores. It can consist of one single cell, or it can be multicellular.

Complete answer:
> Option A is incorrect. With well-developed vascular bundles the plant body is divided into steam, roots, and leaves. The underground rhizome, young leaves and adult leaf rachis remain covered by brown hairy scales called ramenta. A few of them are thin brownish chaffy scales on some plants' leaves or young shoots, especially on the petioles and fern leaves. This is a hedge against drought.

> Option B is incorrect. A sorus is a group of sporangia in ferns and fungi (structures which generate and comprise spores) and are the products of sexual reproduction. The sporangia then bursts out and the spores are released. The sori 's form, arrangement, and location are also useful clues when identifying fern taxa. Every house has many haploid spores to sporangia inside the clusters. These spores will then develop and expand into the gametophytic generation under proper conditions after release from the sporangium.

> Option C is incorrect. Indusium is a kidney-shaped covering of the sorus of some ferns which protects the sporangia that develops. When the sorus matures to expose the sporangia, it withers. A flap of tissue in some ferns, covering the sori, and taking a wide range of forms. The indusia typically shrivel or bend backward to reveal the sporangia, when spores are mature and ready for release.

> Option D is correct. Sporangia and spore producing leaves are called sporophyll or frond in ferns. A sporophyll is a leaf which carries sporangia. Sporophylls may be both microphylls, and megaphylls. Sporophylls carry either megasporangia in heterosporous plants, and are thus called megasporophylls, or microsporangia, and are called microsporophylls. The morphology and arrangement of sporophylls differ greatly, and may or may not look identical to sterile leaves.

Hence, The correct answer is option (D).

Note: All trees and plants undergo a generation change to reproduce; the sporangium is held on the sporophyte, which is the second-generation asexual form. They easily break when the sporangia gets dry out, spilling the spores into the wind. Germination starts when a spore falls in a position that has sufficient heat and humidity levels.