Hint :To answer this particular question you need to know the placement of these elements in the periodic table, and the group and period they belong to as most of the reasons for sodium being metal and carbon being non-metal can be easily found out with that. And in the case of metals and non-metals, one should know their properties.
Complete Step By Step Answer: Sodium belongs to group 1 and it is also known as an alkali metal. Carbon belongs to group 14 of the periodic table and it is non-metallic. Now we will look into the reasons below as to why sodium is a metal and carbon is non-metal Sodium is a good conductor of electricity whereas carbon is a bad conductor of electricity. Sodium is malleable (can be drawn into thin sheets) and ductile (can be drawn into wires), whereas carbon is neither malleable nor ductile. Sodium can easily lose electrons from the valence shell but carbon cannot lose electrons easily Sodium is solid at room temperature whereas carbon is gaseous at room temperature. Sodium makes a strong base named sodium hydroxide by reacting with water whereas Carbon makes weak acid named carbonic acid by reacting with water. Sodium is lustrous (shining or glowing with light, bright, and radiant) whereas carbon is not lustrous. Therefore all the above points’ prove why sodium is metal and carbon is non-metal.
Note : There are many more points of difference between a metal and non-metal like metals can react with oxygen, water, whereas non-metals do not react except some. The melting point and boiling point of metals are generally higher than non-metals and many more.