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# Sodium bicarbonate$\left( {{\text{NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}} \right)$, on heating releases ${\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}$ which causes cookies and bread to rise during baking (a) calculate the volume (in litres) of ${\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}$ produced by heating ${\text{5}}{\text{.0g}}$ of ${\text{NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$ at $180{^\circ}C$ and $13$ atm. (b) ammonium bicarbonate $\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{4}}}} \right){\text{HC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$has also been used as a leavening agent. Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of using $\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{4}}}} \right){\text{HC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$ instead of $\left( {{\text{NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}} \right)$. Verified
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Hint: As we know that the moles are the one of the main units in the chemistry. The moles of the molecule depend on the mass of the molecule and molecular mass of the molecule. Chemical reactions are measured by moles only. The number of equivalents of the reactant also depends on the moles of the molecule. The number of moles of the reactant and product are equal in the equilibrium reaction.
Formula used:
We also know that moles are defined as the given mass of the molecule is divided by the molecular mass of the molecule.
$Moles = \dfrac{{{\text{Mass of the molecule}}}}{{{\text{Molecular weight of the molecule}}}}$
The molecular weight of the molecule is dependent on the atomic weight of the atom present in the molecule. The molecular weight of the molecule is equal to the sum of the molecular weight of the atom and the number of the respective atom in the molecule.
${\text{Molecular weight}} = {\text{Number of the atom}} \times {\text{Atomic weight of the atom}}$
The ideal gas equation depends on the pressure, temperature, number of moles, volume of the gas molecules in ideal condition.
The ideal gas equation is,
${\text{PV = nRT}}$
Here, the pressure of the gas is P
The volume of the gas is V
The temperature of the gas in kelvin is T
Gas constant is R
The number of moles of the Gas molecules is n
Formula for convert degree Celsius to kelvin in temperature
${\text{kelvin = degree + 273}}$

(a) Calculate the volume (in litres) of ${\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}$ produced by heating ${\text{5}}{\text{.0g}}$ of ${\text{NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$ at $180{^\circ}C$ ,
Given,
Temperature at degree = $180{^\circ}C$
Temperature at kelvin = ${\text{180 + 273 = 453K}}$
Gas constant, R=${\text{0}}{\text{.08206Latm/kmol}}$
The pressure of the gas is $13$atm
The molecular mass of sodium bicarbonate is calculate,
The sodium bicarbonate has one sodium atom, one hydrogen atom, one carbon atom and three oxygen atoms in the molecular formula.
The atomic weight of sodium is ${\text{23g}}$
The atomic weight of hydrogen is ${\text{1g}}$
The atomic weight of carbon is ${\text{12g}}$
The atomic weight of oxygen is ${\text{16g}}$
The molecular mass of sodium bicarbonate is
${\text{ = 23 + 1 + 12 + 16 \times 3 = 84g}}$
The number of moles of sodium bicarbonate present in ${\text{5}}{\text{.0g}}$,
The given mass of sodium bicarbonate is ${\text{5}}{\text{.0g}}$
$Moles = \dfrac{{{\text{Mass of the molecule}}}}{{{\text{Molecular weight of the molecule}}}}$
Now we can substitute the given values we get,
${\text{moles}}\,{\text{ = }}\dfrac{{{\text{5}}{\text{.0}}}}{{{\text{84}}}}$
On simplification we get,
${\text{ = 0}}{\text{.0595moles}}$
The number of moles is ${\text{0}}{\text{.0595moles}}$
The ideal gas equation is
${\text{PV = nRT}}$
We change the formula for calculate the volume of the gas,
${\text{V = }}\dfrac{{{\text{nRT}}}}{{\text{P}}}$
We substitute the known values in formula
${\text{V = }}\dfrac{{{\text{0}}{\text{.0593 \times 0}}{\text{.08206 \times 453}}}}{{{\text{13}}}}$
On simplification we get,
${\text{V = 0}}{\text{.170litre}}$
The volume (in litres) of ${\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{2}}}$ produced by heating ${\text{5}}{\text{.0g}}$ of ${\text{NaHC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$ at $180{^\circ}C$ and $13$ atm is${\text{1}}{\text{.7 \times 1}}{{\text{0}}^{{\text{ - 1}}}}{\text{litre}}$.
(b)
Ammonium bicarbonate $\left( {{\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{4}}}} \right){\text{HC}}{{\text{O}}_{\text{3}}}$ has also been used as a leavening agent.
The advantage of replacing sodium bicarbonate by ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate does not leave residue of sodium carbonate in food. That the pH of the food is not affected.
The ammonium bicarbonate releases ammonia in food. It causes skin irritation, eye irritation, throat affect and lungs affects.

Note:
We must have to remember that all the gases are not ideal in nature. Depend on the condition of the gas it behave as ideal gas. There are three units for measure the temperature. There are degree Celsius, kelvin and Fahrenheit. The ammonium bicarbonate is a leavening agent. It is especially used for low-moisture products. Both ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate are used as leavening agents for industrial purposes.