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Scientist Kuhne-
a. Discovered enzymes
b. Coined the term enzyme
c. Coined the term gene
d. Discovered parathyroid

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: While examining the fermentation of sugar into alcohol by yeast. Kuhne, a German physiologist discovered a globular protein that functions alone or in larger complexes. The amino acid sequence defines the structure that, in turn, determines this protein's catalytic activity.

Complete answer:
> Option A is incorrect. Anselme Payen, a French chemist, was the first to discover an enzyme, diastase, and carbohydrate cellulose in 1833. Payen has also developed methods for sugar refining, along with a way to refine potato starch and alcohol, and a nitrogen determination system. A decolorimeter was invented by Payen, which dealt with examination, decolorization, bleaching, and sugar crystallisation.

> Option B is correct. Wilhelm Kuhne, a German physiologist, first used the word enzyme in 1877. Proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts) are enzymes. Chemical reactions accelerate these biocatalysts. The molecules that enzymes can work on are called substrates, and the enzyme transforms the substrates into various products known as molecules. In order to occur at rates high enough to sustain life, nearly all metabolic processes in the cell require enzyme catalysis.

> Option C is incorrect. To identify the Mendelian units of heredity, the Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen coined the term gene. He also made the distinction between an individual's physical appearance (phenotype) and its genetic features (genotype). A gene is a nucleotide sequence in DNA or RNA that, either RNA or protein, encodes the synthesis of a gene product.

> Option D is incorrect. The parathyroid glands in the Indian Rhinoceros were identified by Richard Owen in 1852. "Owen referred to the glands in his description of the anatomy of the neck as" a tiny compact yellow glandular body connected to the thyroid at the point of emergence of the veins. Tiny endocrine glands found in the anterior neck are parathyroid glands. They are responsible for parathyroid hormone (PTH) development.

Hence, the correct answer is option (B).

Note: The enzyme requires sites for binding and orientation of catalytic cofactors. Enzyme structures that can involve allosteric positions where the binding of a small molecule causes a conformational change that increases or decreases activity.