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What is the role of gibberellins in plant growth and development?

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Gibberellins are a group of plant hormones responsible for plant growth. Gibberellins regulate the growth and development processes which include stem elongation, seed germination, flowering etc.

Complete answer:
Role of Gibberellins in plant growth and development is:
1. Early seed privation – spraying juvenile conifers with Gibberellin hastens the maturity period, thus leading to early seed production.
2. Promotes bolting – This hormone promotes bolting i.e. internode elongation in beet, cabbage and many plants with rose habit.
3. Increases crop production – Spraying sugarcane crop with Gibberellins increases the length of the stem and hence increases the yield. Sugarcane stores carbohydrates as sugar in their stems.
4. Delay senescence – Gibberellins delay senescence hence, the fruits can be left on the tree for a long time so as to extend the market period.
5. Promotes flowering – This hormone promotes flowering in long day plants.
6. Overcome dormancy – Gibberellins are involved in the process of breaking dormancy of seeds and buds.
7. Induce Parthenocarpy – Gibberellins are helpful in inducing parthenocarpy.

Additional Information: Gibberellins are produced in plastids. Gibberellins was discovered by kerosene, a Japanese scientist, while studying a foolish seedling disease that causes a strong elongation of rice stem. Gibberellins are kind of plant growth regulators. More than\[100\]Gibberellins are discovered so far from fungi and higher plants. They are donated as $G{A_1},G{A_2},\,G{A_3}$and so on.
$G{A_3}$ was one of the first discovered Gibberellins acid.
All known Gibberellins are diterpenoid acids that are synthesized by the terpenoid pathway in plastids and then modified in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm.

Note: The name Gibberellin is derived from Gibberella fujikuroi hormone producing fungus. Gibberellin acid is commercially available for horticultural and home gardening uses. It helps in stem elongation, promotes flowering, overcome dormancy and increases seed production etc.