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What is the relationship between the electron transport chain and oxygen?

Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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Hint: Photosynthesis is the mechanism by which plants produce glucose molecules using non-living components from the environment such as light from the sun, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, chlorophyll from the leaves, and water from the soil.

Complete answer:
There are two main stages of photosynthesis:
1. Light reaction, and
2. Calvin cycle.
In the chloroplasts' thylakoid membrane, light-dependent reactions take place. They make one molecule of ATP and one molecule of NADPH using light energy. In the leaves of plants, there are two types of photosystems. Photosystem I and Photosystem II. Different pigments in these photosystems trap light energy and release high-energy electrons, resulting in a potential gradient. These high-energy electrons lose energy as they migrate down the concentration gradient. The hydrogen ions are driven from the stroma to the lumen of thylakoids by the released energy. As the hydrogen ions move through the cell, they come into contact with ATP synthase, which causes ATP to be generated. Chemiosmosis is the name for this operation. For the second time, high-energy electrons move down the concentration gradient, where they begin the formation of NADPH molecules from $NADP^+$. The electron transport chain is what we call it. The presence of nascent oxygen at the end of the chain is important. Water is formed when hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen molecules.

The two photosystems listed above both contain photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids, and other pigments are examples of these pigments. They are light-trapping molecules present in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. As a pigment absorbs light, one of its valence electrons is boosted to a higher-energy orbital, causing it to transition from its ground state to an excited state. Resonance energy transfer is the name for this method.