Hint: Plants growing on sandy soil are found in xerophytic conditions like desserts or drought as they have adaptations to survive the extreme conditions. Examples of such plants include Ammodendron, Calligonum.
Plants growing on sandy soil are known as psammophytes which consist mostly of trees and shrubs. Psammophytes have very reduced or no leaves and processes like photosynthesis and transpiration are done by the stem of the plant. These plants are normally seen covered in sand and their root system is also exposed. The fruits have wing-like appendages to help in seed dispersal and to not sink inside the sand. Germination takes place quickly with the roots reaching half a meter in a short time. These plants are used to strengthen and stabilize sandy soils.
Additional Information: Lithophytes: These are plants that grow on rocks or in the spaces between rocks. Lithophytes are generally the first organisms to inhabit a place as they can grow on rocks and break them into smaller rocks. Examples- Lichens, mosses, ferns, etc.
Hydrophytes: Hydrophytes or macrophytes are plants that grow in or near water and can be fully submerged, partially submerged, or floating. Examples include water hyacinth, water lily, lotus, etc.
Xerophytes: Xerophytes are plants that can grow in an environment with very less moisture and thus have adaptations in their body to prevent water loss. Adaptations include reduced leaves to prevent transpiration and fleshy stems that can store more water. Examples- Cactus, Pineapple, Acacia
So, the correct option is ‘Psammophytes’.
Note: -Plants that grow inside a rock and destroy it are known as lithophagus plants and the plants that grow inside the depressions of rock and feed on the dead matter are known as chasmophytes.
-Adaptations of aquatic plants include the presence of air-filled aerenchyma cells which help keep the plants lightweight and float.
-Water Hyacinth is an invasive species and is known as ‘The Terror of Bengal’.