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Part of adrenal cortex which secretes cortisol is
A. Zona glomerulosa
B. Zona reticularis
C. Zona fasciculta
D. Zona pellucida

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Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Adrenal gland is an endocrine gland and has two-sections- the adrenal cortex (outer part) and adrenal medulla (inner part). The middle part or the section of the cortex is responsible for cortisol secretion.

Step by step answer:
The adrenal gland has three layers: Zona glomerulosa, Zona glomerulosa, and Zona fasciculata.
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In option A, zona glomerulosa is mentioned. It is the top layer in the adrenal gland. It is responsible for the secretion of the hormones called mineralocorticoid which is important in the maintenance and regulation of body fluid balance.
In option B, zona reticularis is mentioned. The zona reticularis is the lowermost layer of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for the secretion and production of androgens. Androgens are referred to a group of hormones that are involved in male traits like hairiness and voice. The androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone or DHEA, DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione which is known to be the precursor of testosterone.
In option C, zona fasciculata is mentioned. The zona fasciculata is the middle layer of the cortex. The hormones which are secreted belong to the group of glucocorticoids. Cortisol and Corticosterone are the two main hormones in the group. Cortisol hormones are responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, in particular during the condition when a person is in a time of stress. It also regulates blood sugar levels salt and water balance.
In option D, zona pellucida is mentioned. It is not a part of the adrenal cortex. It is the outermost membrane that envelops the mammalian ovum.

Note: In Addison’s disease the adrenal gland produces an insufficient quantity of hormones. These hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. In Cushing’s disease cortisol is produced in large amounts by the adrenal glands. The female may experience high blood pressure, excessive hairiness around the face, fat accumulation among many others.