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Why is necessary to emasculate a bisexual flower in a plant breeding program? Mention the condition under which emasculation is not necessary.

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: It is the process of removal of stamens or anthers of a flower without affecting the female reproductive part.

Complete answer:
Emasculation is done to prevent self-pollination in the designated female parent. Emasculation is usually performed by plant breeders. Hybridization is the most cost-effective technique for the improvement of crops by bringing together desirable genes. In plants, hybridization can be initiated by dusting the pollen grains of the selected male parent of the selected female parent. Fertilization and seed setting result in the production of hybrids. Emasculation is the removal of male reproductive organs, such as stamens or anthers, or the killing of the pollen grains without damaging other parts of the flower.
The condition when emasculation is not necessary was in unisexual flowers and those plants which exhibit self-compatibility.

Additional Information: -After the emasculation, the emasculated flower or inflorescence is enclosed within a suitable bag to prevent contamination by pollen from other flowers and thereby to avoid random cross-pollination. This is called bagging.
-After removal of the bag, pollination is done by plant breeders using artificial pollination.
-Harvesting of seeds and its storage is the last stage.
-The advantage of hybridization was to increase crop yield. By breeding the two selected parental species, the best quality progeny is derived. Also, the unwanted characters are removed and the organisms possess various qualities such as disease resistance, stress resistance, etc.

Note: Pollination is the process of depositing viable pollen grains on the receptive stigmas to bring about fertilization. Cross-pollinated plants are the plants from the same species which cross easily and produce fertile progeny.
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