Hint: Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that are formed in trace quantities and act as intracellular messengers. Testes and ovaries are involved in production of reproductive hormones.
Complete Answer: There are special chemicals in the body that function as hormones and provide the body with chemical coordination, regulation and integration. They are secreted by the endocrine system. These hormones regulate the endocrine glands, metabolism, cell growth and development. The endocrine system comprises hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid and adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid, thymus, and gonads (testis, ovary).
Hormones secreted in male: - The testes are found within a pouch called scrotum outside the abdominal cavity. Each testis has compartments known as testicular lobules. - Each lobule consists of one to three tightly coiled seminiferous tubules that produce sperms. There are small blood vessels and interstitial cells or Leydig cells in the regions outside of the seminiferous tubules which are known as interstitial spaces. - The Leydig cells produce and secrete the testicular hormones known as androgens, mainly testosterone. - Androgens control the growth, development and function of male accessory sex organs. These hormones promote muscle development, facial and axillary hair growth, aggressiveness, low voice pitch etc. Androgens play a significant stimulating role in spermatogenesis. - Androgens function on the central neural system and affect the sexual behavior (libido) of males. These hormones have anabolic effects on the metabolism of the proteins and carbohydrates.
Hormones secreted in female: - The female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries, a pair of oviducts, cervix, uterus, vagina and the pelvic region found in the outer genitalia. Ovaries are the main female sex organs containing the female gamete (ovum) that produce various steroid hormones. - The ovaries are located on both sides of the lower abdomen. The two steroid hormone groups are called estrogen and progesterone. - Ovaries are made up of ovarian follicles and stromal tissues. The estrogen is synthesised and produced mainly by the growing ovarian follicles. - The ruptured follicle is transferred to a structure called corpus luteum after ovulation, which primarily secretes progesterone. - Estrogens stimulates the growth and activity of secondary female sex organs, appearance of secondary female sex characters, development of growing ovarian follicles, and development of mammary glands. Progesterone helps with pregnancy and acts on the mammary glands. It activates formation of alveoli and milk secretion.
Note: Reproductive hormones are usually made in the ovaries (in females) and testes (in males). They help develop and maintain sexual characteristics and aid in the reproductive process.