India is situated at 20.5937o N and 78.9628o E latitude and longitude respectively. Spread over a land area of 15, 200 km, India shares the third largest international border after China and Russia in the world. The border of India with the neighbouring countries is most sensitive in terms of infiltration to climatic conditions. India has an enviable coastline including its mainland, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands. The total coastline is of 7516.6 km. India has neighbouring countries sharing both land and water borders. A total of nine countries share their borders with India as her neighbours.
India’s Neighbouring Countries in the North-West
In the North West of the country, there are two neighbouring countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The country shares its border with the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Punjab. Officially its name is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan with its capital at Lahore. It has a population of more than 212.2 million making it the fifth most populated country.
The country was created during the partition of India where the majority of the residents are Muslim. It has a wide geographical diversity and diverse wildlife too.
English and Urdu are official languages of Pakistan. Regional languages like Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi ad Balochi are also recognised. Pakistani Rupee is its currency.
It shares its border with Jammu and Kashmir. Its capital is Kabul and the official name is the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. It is a landlocked country with a population of around 32 million.
99.7% of people in Afghanistan are followers of Islam religion. The country is situated in the ancient Silk Route and connects the cultures of Asia and the Middle East.
Pashto and Dari Dari are the official languages here. Afghani is its currency.
India’s Neighbours in the North
China, Bhutan and Nepal are the northern neighbours of India.
Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh share their border with this neighbour. Its official name is the People’s Republic of China. With a population of more than 1.4 billion, China is the most populous country in the world.
Beijing is its capital and Shanghai is the largest city. Chinese is the official language and Mongolian, Tibetan etc are recognised regional languages. It has been one of the first civilisations in history.
Renminbi (Yuan) is the official currency here. The earlier hereditary monarchy ruled here, but eventually, Republic of China came into action.
This northern neighbour shares its border with Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim and West Bengal. It is officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan. This landlocked country has a population of about 7 million making it second least populous country.
The largest city and the capital is Thimphu. Phuntsholing is its financial centre. The official language here is Dzongkha. Most of the people here are followers of Buddhism.
Ngultrum is the official currency. Earlier absolute monarchy was observed here while now it is a constitutional monarchy.
Sikkim, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand share their border with Nepal. It is officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.
This landlocked country has a population of more than 28 million. Its capital is in Kathmandu. The currency in use is Nepalese Rupee.
Nepal is a founding member of SAARC and hosts its meetings. Nepali is the official language here and most of the population follows Hinduism or Buddhism.
India’s Neighbouring Country in the Far East: Myanmar
Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram share border with this country. It is officially known as Republic of the Union of Myanmar or Burma. It is the largest Mainland Southeast Asian state.
Its capital is in Naypyidaw and Yangon is its largest city. The people of Myanmar are called Burmese. Their official language goes by the same name too.
Buddhism is the main observed religion here. Its currency is Kyat. The country became independent from the British colony in 1948.
India’s Neighbouring Country of the East: Bangladesh
West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Mizoram and Meghalaya shares the border of Bangladesh, officially known as the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Its population is more than 161 million.
Dhaka is its capital. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries. Bengali is the official language here and most of the people follow Islam religion.
The country was created based upon language and ethnicity. Bangladeshi Taka is the official currency here. Sunderban, the world’s largest mangrove forest is here.
India’s Neighbouring Countries Sharing Her Water Border
It is the southeastern neighbour of India. Known as the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, it is an island with Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte as its capital. Colombo is its largest city.
People mainly observe Buddhism here. Sri Lankan Rupee is the official currency. Singhala and Tamil are two official languages.
This small island of South Asia located in the Arabian Sea is officially known as the Republic of Maldives. Male is its capital and Dhivehi is the official language. English is also recognised.
Maldivian Rufiyaa is its currency ad people follow Islam. The country is a famous tourist spot for its beautiful beaches and coastline.
India’s Relationship with the Neighbouring Countries
India maintains a stable and good relationship with all its neighbours. Our country extends helping hand in any sort of distress in any of its neighbours. When the need arises, hostility is answered accordingly too. Overall, India maintains a peaceful relationship with most of its neighbours.
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