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Maximum density of water is at the temperature __
A.32$^oF$
B.39.4$^oF$
C.4$^oF$
D.42$^oF$

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Last updated date: 16th Jul 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Water is a gaseous, liquid, and solid material that is made up of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen. It is one of the most abundant and necessary compounds. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odourless liquid with the essential ability to dissolve a wide range of other compounds.

Complete answer:
A substance's density is defined as its mass per unit volume. While the Latin letter D can also be used, the most common symbol for density is. The term "density" refers to the amount of mass per unit of volume. An object's average density is proportional to its total mass divided by its total volume. An object composed of a more dense material (such as iron) would have less volume than one made of a less dense substance of comparable mass (such as water).
The weight of water per unit volume is called density, and it is determined by the temperature of the water.
The highest density of water is found at 39.4$^oF$, where two opposing forces are balanced.
There is a lot of free space in the crystal lattice when water is in the form of ice. As the ice melts, this mechanism begins to crumble. If the temperature rises, the mass of the water molecules decreases, causing them to migrate farther apart.
Water comprises ice-clusters that are free to pass at 32$^oF$. These clusters have empty spaces, causing the density to decrease.
When the water cools, the temperature of the heated water drops, resulting in a rise in density. Clusters begin to form at 39.4$^oF$, resulting in a maximum density of water.
Water has a density of roughly 1 grams per cubic centimetre ($41 g/cm^3$).
It is temperature dependent, but the relationship is defined as non-linear and unimodal rather than monotonic.
When liquid water is cooled from room temperature, it begins to become gradually thick, similar to other liquids, but pure water is said to achieve its optimum density around 4$^oC$.
It continues to stretch and become less compact as it cools further. This kind of unusual negative thermal expansion is caused by solid, orientation-dependent intermolecular forces or interactions, and it can be seen in the form of molten silica.

Note:
There is a lot of free space in the crystal lattice when water is in the form of ice. As the ice melts, this mechanism begins to crumble. If the temperature rises, the mass of the water molecules decreases, causing them to migrate farther apart.