The Nobel Prize came into existence in the year 1901. It was named after a chemist, engineer, inventor, and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel. It is an award of the highest order and is given at an international level by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden. This award is given to individuals having exceptional contribution in the field of literature, peace, chemistry, physics, physiology, medicine, and economic sciences. In the year, 1895, the will of Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established 5 Nobel prizes. These prizes were in the fields of Literature, Chemistry, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine and were first awarded in the year 1901.
An organization or a person who is awarded the Nobel Prize is known as Nobel Laureate. The term "Laureate" means laurel wreath which signified honour in ancient Greece. Below is the list of people who received Nobel Prize in the last three years.
William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza received Nobel in the field of Physiology or Medicine. They discovered how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.
James Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz received Nobel in the field of Physics due to their contribution to theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology and discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.
John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino received Nobel in the field of Chemistry for their discovery in the development of lithium-ion batteries.
Peter Handke received a Nobel in the field of Literature for the discovery of influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.
Abiy Ahmed Ali received the Nobel Peace award for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea.
Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer received a Nobel in the field of economics for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.
In the year 2018, James P. Allison (USA), Tasuku Honjo Japan) received a Nobel in the field of Physiology or Medicine.
Gerard Mourou, Arthur Ashkin, Donna Strickland in the field of Physics. George Smith, Frances Arnold, Greg Winter in the field of chemistry.
Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for Peace and William Nordhaus and Paul Romer in Economic Sciences.
In the year 2017, Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish, Kip S. Thorne received a Nobel in the field of Physics.
Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, Richard Henderson received Nobel in the field of Chemistry.
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young in the field of Physiology or Medicine.
Kazuo Ishiguro received in the field of Literature. Moreover, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons received the Nobel prize for Peace. And Richard H. Thaler received the Nobel for Economic Science.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences gives the Nobel Prize in the field of Chemistry and Physics. In the field of Economic Sciences, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize is given.
The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute gives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Swedish Academy announces the Nobel Prize winner in the field of Literature and finally, the Norwegian Nobel Committee gives the Nobel Prize to the most deserving person in the field of Peace.