Questions & Answers

Lichen is the pioneer vegetation on which succession?
A. Hydrosere
B. Lithosere
C. Psammosere
D. Xerosere.

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Hint: Biological or ecological succession is the development of a series of biotic communities at the same site, one after another until a climax community develops and no further community or change is developed and establishes a perfect harmony.

Complete answer: The succession starts with the first community called pioneer community and ends with a climax community. The succession is of two types: primary and secondary succession. The entire series of biotic succession that occurs in the sequence is termed ad sere, the series of development stages on the arid region is called xerosere and biological succession is called xerarch. Xerosere is further two types that are named as lithosere and psammosere, the biological succession occurs on bare rock or land and the biological succession occurs on soil respectively. The different stages of biotic succession that occur in the water body are called hydrosere and succession is said to be hydrarch succession. Lichen is the symbiotic relation of fungi and algae, which support each other on different environmental stresses, and lichen is the first biological community that develops on the weathered rock or land surface. The pioneer lichen develop is usually crustose lichens, for example:- graphis, rhizocarpon, these are desiccation-tolerant, heat and excessive cooling tolerant and help in the weathering of rock. After this stage, the next stage is the moss stage.
Hence, the correct option is B.

Note: Biological succession is of two types such as primary and secondary succession. Primary succession occurs on unweathered or new form rock-like deposited lava or new island form while secondary succession occurs on that area which became secondary due to destruction of the previous community.
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