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Inductive effects involve:
A. Displacement of \[\sigma \]electrons resulting in polarization
B. Displacement of \[\pi \]electrons resulting in polarization
C. Delocalization of \[\sigma \]electrons
D. Delocalization of \[\pi \]electrons

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: Electron displacement is fundamentally the displacement of electron clouds from one atom to another atom in a molecule.
Delocalization of electrons is nothing but the electrons are shared between certain atoms, where a molecule cannot be represented by a single structure.
Inductive effect involves electron displacement due to difference in the electronegativity of the atoms of a compound.

Complete step by step answer:
The inductive effect is an effect concerning the spread of unequal sharing of the bonding electron through the atoms in a chain of the molecule, leading to the formation of dipole in a bond.
The spreading of electrons is nothing but the displacement of electrons.
In an inductive effect the sigma (\[\sigma \]) electrons are going to displace resulting in the polarization of the bond.
Inductive effect is nothing but the polarization of a \[\sigma \] bond due to presence of an electron withdrawing or an electron donating groups or atoms in a molecule.
\[\overset{\delta \delta \delta \delta +}{\mathop{C{{H}_{3}}-}}\,\overset{\delta \delta \delta +}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}-}}\,\overset{\delta \delta +}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}-}}\,\overset{\delta +}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}-}}\,\overset{\delta -}{\mathop{Cl}}\,\]
In the above example the chlorine is a highly electronegative element and displaces the \[\sigma \]electrons towards it from the carbons atoms in a chain resulting in polarization.

Hence, the correct answer is option A.

The movement of electrons towards the other atoms is due to the presence of electron withdrawing or electron donating group then it is called inductive effect.
The movement of pi electrons, nothing but resonance is called delocalization. Inductive effect and delocalization are different concepts not the same.
There are two types of inductive effects: +I effect and -I effect. The +I or the positive inductive effect takes place for the groups which have the tendency to release electrons while the -I effect or the negative inductive effect takes place for the groups which have the tendency to withdraw electrons.