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Indian mustard or Rai is
A. Brassica juncea
B. Brassica nigra
C. Brassica rapa
D. Brassica campestris

Last updated date: 25th Jun 2024
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Hint: Brassica belongs to the family Brassicaceae. The members of this family include mustards, cabbages and cruciferous vegetables. The genus is native to Asia and parts of western Europe.

Complete answer:
Brassica nigra is also known as Black mustard. It is an annual plant with dark brown coloured seeds. Generally, the plants are grown in moist soils. The flowers are yellow in colour. The black mustard species are commonly used as a spice. They contain high amounts of oleic acid. In ancient times black mustard was used as a medicine to prevent cough and cold.
Brassica juncea is the brown mustard or Indian mustard. This species contains high amounts of Vitamins A, C and K. Indian mustard is cultivated in Nepal, China, India, Korea, Italy among other countries. Brown mustard is primarily used in cooking. In northern India, the mustard greens are used to make a dish called Sarson da Saag. Mustard greens are used in pickling, cooking pork in various other countries like Nepal, China and Africa. Apart from its culinary use, Indian mustard is also used in a process called phytoremediation, that is use of plants to clean polluted water, soil or air. This species of Brassica is used as a green manure. It can inhibit the growth of weeds.
Brassica rapa and Brassica campestris is grown in forms of turnips, napa cabbages, bok choy, etc. the oil made from seeds of this plant species is known as canola oil. It is also known as the Field mustard.
Hence, we can conclude that Brassica juncea is the Indian mustard.

Therefore, option (A) is correct.

Note: The genus Brassica comprises a variety of plants including bok choy, turnips, mustard cabbages, mustard, etc. it has immense influence on agriculture and horticulture societies of India. These plants have prominent culinary and medicinal use. The vegetables of Brassica family have high concentrations of Vitamin C, vitamin K, and manganese.