Question
Answers

In gymnosperm, the pollination is
(a) Anemophilous-micropylar
(b) Anemophilous-stigmatic
(c) Entomophilous-micropylar
(d) None of the above

Answer
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Hint: There is some abiotic factor that is responsible for bringing about the pollination in the naked seeded plants. It is completed because of exposed ovules.

Complete answer:
Pollination occurs only by the wind in gymnosperms i.e anemophilous pollination. Also, the pollen grains are transferred directly to the ovule as the ovules are exposed directly to the surface. Therefore, pollination is not stigmatic but micropylar. The transfer of pollen to the female organs of seed plants is called pollination. Immature seeds (ovules) are located within carpels in flowering plants (angiosperms, or "covered seeds"). In non-flowering seed plants, ovules are uncovered to which the pollen is transferred, making these "naked seeds" (gymnosperms). Pollen grains are blown by the wind to land on the female cones during pollination. Examples of living gymnosperms are conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales. The conifers are the most common and abundant group of "gymnosperms" existing today.

Additional Information:
-The micropyle is a small opening on the surface of the ovule.
-Angiosperms have many types of pollination methods that involve many different agents to transfer pollen, including insects (entomophily), birds (ornithophily), bats (chirpily), wind (anemophily), and water (hydrophily).



So, the correct answer is, 'Anemophilous- micropylar'.

Note:
-Animals are attracted usually by a conspicuous floral display, with color and scent playing important roles. Bees are attracted by yellow and blue flowers, hummingbirds are attracted by red flowers, butterflies are attracted by pink flowers, and moths and bats are attracted by white flowers that stand out at night.
-Animal-based pollination is associated with a food reward to assure a continuing relationship.