Hint: Chromatography is a process used to separate the components of a mixture. It has 2 phases: the mobile phase and the stationary phase. The mobile phase is observed in the stationary phase.
Complete step by step answer:
-Chromatography is a technique used for separating the mixture. The solution or the mixture is passed through a medium in which the components move at a different rate or different speed.
-This technique is used for separation and the separation is based on the solubility of the compounds.
-This technique consists of two phases; the mobile phase and the stationary phase.
Mobile phase: The mixture which is dissolved in the fluid is called the mobile phase. It is carried through a structure that holds another medium called the stationary phase.
-Stationary phase: It is called the absorbent medium. It can be liquid, gel, or even solid. It remains immovable when a gas or a liquid moves over the adsorbent surface. It remains stationary throughout the process. Examples of stationary phases are filter paper, glass, silica, Whatman filter paper, etc.
-Whatman filter paper: It consists of 99% of alpha-cellulose. It is mainly cellulose fiber and is a polymer. The polymer chain consists of a functional group OH which sticks to the polymer chain. The cellulose in the paper acts as water absorbing material which acts as a stationary phase.
Hence, the absorbent medium eg. Whatman filter paper is known as the stationary phase in chromatography.
There are 4 types of chromatography: Gas chromatography, Liquid chromatography, Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and Paper chromatography. For testing the water samples we use Liquid chromatography.