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Identify the correct statement regarding enzymes.
A. Enzymes are specific biological catalysts and their action is independent of $pH$.
B. Enzymes are normally heterogeneous catalysts that are very specific in their action.
C. Enzymes are specific biological catalysts that cannot be poisoned.
D. Enzymes are specific biological catalysts that can normally function at very high temperature $\left( {T = 1000K} \right)$.

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Last updated date: 23rd Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: Enzymes are proteins that serve as biological catalysts.Catalysts aid in the acceleration of chemical reactions. Substrates are compounds that enzymes can work with, and the enzymes convert the substrates into various molecules known as products.

Complete answer:
In living organisms, an enzyme acts as a catalyst, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions occur while remaining unchanged. Enzymes function by binding to reactant molecules and keeping them in a position that allows chemical bond-breaking and bond-forming to occur more easily. The path of a reaction with and without a catalyst is shown in this reaction coordinate diagram. The activation energy is lower in the presence of the catalyst than in the absence. In living organisms, all biological processes are chemical reactions, and enzymes regulate the majority of them. Many of these reactions would not occur at all if enzymes weren't present. All aspects of cell metabolism are catalysed by enzymes. This includes food digestion, which breaks down large nutrient molecules (like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) into smaller molecules; chemical energy storage and transformation; and the creation of cellular macromolecules from smaller precursors. Many inherited human disorders, such as albinism and phenylketonuria, are caused by enzyme deficiencies.
Now, according to the question the correct statement regarding enzymes is- Since the enzymes have a three-dimensional substrate binding site that binds to the complementary three-dimensional substrate molecule, they are unique in their action. As a result, the enzymes are site-specific in their binding and action.
So, the correct option is : (B) Enzymes are normally heterogeneous catalyst that are very specific in their action.

Note:
Proteinaceous enzymes are found in nature. Proteins are kept in their secondary and tertiary structures by intramolecular and intermolecular bonds. The destruction of bonds occurs when the temperature exceeds an optimal range. The enzymes become heat sensitive as a result of this.
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