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Glomerular filtrate is
A. Blood minus corpuscles and plasma protein
B. Blood minus corpuscles
C. Mixture of water ammonia and corpuscles
D. Urine

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Urine is a waste byproduct formed from the metabolic waste molecules and excess water during renal system filtration. The primary function of the renal system is to regulate plasma osmolarity, blood volume and waste removal via urine. Urine forms in three steps: glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion.

Complete answer:
During the filtration process, blood enters afferent arteriole and flows into glomerulus where filterable blood components, like nitrogenous waste and water, will move towards inside of the glomerulus, and nonfilterable components, such as serum albumins and cells, will exit via the efferent arteriole. These filterable components accumulate in the glomerulus and form glomerular filtrate.
The glomerular ultrafiltrate has the same composition as the blood plasma that is, blood minus blood corpuscles. It is normally free of protein (except for protein about 10 mg per dl of low-molecular-weight). Some of the filtered products include electrolytes, urea, uric acid, creatinine, amino acids, water, glucose, and ammonia. As the glomerular filtrate passes through proximal tubules, a large portion of the amino acids, sodium chloride, water, potassium, calcium, glucose, bicarbonate, phosphate, and other threshold substances needed by the body are reabsorbed and then pass back into the bloodstream. Thus glomerular filtrate is blood minus blood corpuscles and plasma protein.

Note: About 20 percent of the total blood pumped by our heart in each minute enters the kidneys and undergo filtration. This is known as the filtration fraction. Remaining 80 percent of blood flows through the rest of the body to facilitate gas exchange and tissue perfusion.