Questions & Answers

For the manufacture of glass, various steps are given below. Arrange the steps in a proper sequence.
a.Melting of raw materials
b.Adding cullet to raw materials
c.Conversion of raw materials to fine powder
d.Annealing
e.Refining
A.a b c d e
B.b a c e d
C.c b a e d
D.c b a d e

Answer
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Hint:We have to know that production of glass mainly involves two methods. One method is the process of float glass. The other method is the glassblowing method. In the process of float glass, sheets of glass are produced and in glassblowing method bottles and other containers are produced.

Complete step by step answer:
Manufacturing of glass involves:
We have to know that the fine powder is obtained by the conversion of raw materials. The cullet is added to raw materials. After this process, raw materials are melted.
The melting is carried out in an open hearth furnace. In the open hearth furnace more heat is produced. The temperature is more than a degree Celsius. At some time, we could see the appearance of glass liquid which is formed bubbles free. At this stage, salts are added to get the desired glass colour we need. Once the process of melting is completed it is cooled to some temperature. This cooled melted glass could be produced into any shapes and any design with the help of machinery work.
We have to know that at this stage, the compression is done. The next stage is the glass cooling and we call this process as annealing. The heat of the glass is still the same when obtained during the process of melting. We have to allow the glass to cool slowly. In case if the glass cools down faster, the cracking of glass takes place. We can obtain better quality of the glass if annealing is done for a long period of time.
So first is the raw material conversion, and then is addition of cullet. This is followed by melting of raw materials, annealing process and process of refining. So the order is c b a e d.
Therefore, the option (C) is correct.

Note:
We have to remember that some of the raw materials that are used in the manufacturing of glass are silicon dioxide, sodium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide. One can obtain sulfur oxides during the process of melting of glass. The furnace, compressor, and unused molten glass are cooled using water.