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Last updated date: 06th Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

For ${\text{p}}\,{\text{ - }}\,$ type semiconductors are formed when ${\text{Si}}$ or ${\text{Ge}}$ are doped with :
(A) group $14$ elements
(B) group $15$ elements
(C) group $13$ elements
(D) group $18$ elements

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Hint: Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity between conductors (usually metals) and nonconductors (insulators) (such as most ceramics). Semiconductors are made up of pure elements like silicon and germanium, as well as additives like gallium arsenide and cadmium selenide.

Complete answer:
Doping is the deliberate introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical, optical, and structural properties in semiconductor manufacturing. An extrinsic semiconductor is a substance that has been doped.
A degenerate semiconductor is a semiconductor that has been doped to such high levels that it behaves more like a conductor than a semiconductor. In certain pigments, doping is often used to regulate the colour.
Since the majority of charge carriers in the crystal are positive holes, an extrinsic semiconductor that has been doped with electron acceptor atoms is referred to as a ${\text{p - }}$ type semiconductor.
To be classified as a ${\text{p - }}$ type semiconductor, ${\text{Si}}$ or ${\text{Ge}}$ must be doped with trivalent elements. This will result in electron scarcity, also known as a hole. As a result, the elements should belong to Group $13$.
Hence, ${\text{p}}\,{\text{ - }}\,$ type semiconductors are formed when ${\text{Si}}$or ${\text{Ge}}$ are doped with group $13$ elements.
So, the correct option is (C).

Semiconductor devices may have a variety of useful properties, including the ability to transfer current more quickly in one direction than the other, variable resistance, and light or heat sensitivity. Devices made of semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion since the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be changed by doping.