Flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes cells differ in_______. A) Microtubular organisation and type of movement. B) Microtubular organization and function. C) Type of movement and placement in the cell D) Location in cell and mode of functioning.
Hint: Flagella are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The arrangement of protein differs in the flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. But it performs similar functions.
Complete step by step answer: The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes cells differ in microtubule organization and the type of movement it possesses. In eukaryotic flagella, the arrangement of microtubules is (9+2). It has nine fused pairs of microtubule doublets surrounding two central single microtubules, which is the characteristic core of the eukaryotic flagellum called an axoneme. Each of the outer 9 doublet microtubules extends a pair of dynein arms to the adjacent microtubule, which produces force through ATP hydrolysis, whereas, the arrangement of microtubules seen in prokaryotic cells is (9+0). It is made up of the protein flagellin and has a 20 nanometres thick hollow tube. Movement is the other factor that differentiates between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic flagella run in a rotary movement, i.e. when the flagellum rotates clockwise, the filament forms a long pitch supercoil, allowing several flagella to form a large bundle, which propels the bacterium along a straight line in a single direction. In eukaryotes, the flagella run in a bending movement. Hence, the correct answer is option A.
Additional information: A flagellate can have one or more flagella. It plays an important role in locomotion, also often functions as a sensory organelle. Eukaryotic flagella are structurally identical to eukaryotic cilia, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function or length.
Note: Cells of prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, most of the cell organelles are absent. The genetic material is suspended in the nucleoid, whereas eukaryotes are modern cells that have all the organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and a nucleus.