Explain what is budding, give two examples of the same.
Hint: Under asexual reproduction, new individuals develop from a single parent. It is found to occur in single celled organisms. These organisms are mostly microorganisms and also found under water. Unlike binary fission, cytoplasmic division is unequal and a parental cell exists.
Complete answer: In this process unicellular structure develops an outgrowth (bud) on one side. Daughter nuclei produced through karyokinesis shifts into the bud. The bud grows at the base and separates. So, initially bud remains attached to the parent cells which eventually separates and mature into new organisms(cell). In budding, new individuals are formed by mitosis. a small outgrowth of the parent’s body develops into an individual. It then separates from mother to lead a free life. Example is Hydra. This type of budding is known as exogenous buddying, an example is yeast. Sometimes the bud does not get separated from the mother cell, and forms a colony. Example, in obelia, the colony consists of a number of individuals or zoids that perform different functions. In all freshwater sponges like in sycon, the parent individual releases a specialised mass of cells enclosed in a common opaque envelope called gemmule. On germination, each gemmule gives rise to an offspring and the archaeocytes present in it give rise to various cells of the body of sponges as they are totipotent. Gemmules are thought to be internal buds formed by endogenous budding during unfavourable conditions.
Note: It is Types of reproduction: there is a large diversity in the biological world. Each organism has evolved its own mechanism to multiply and produce offspring. Both external as well as internal factors are responsible for its reproduction. Broadly speaking there are two type of reproduction, asexual and sexual.