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Explain the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: Oxygen transportation occurs with the help of RBCs. \[3\% \] oxygen is dissolved in the blood and \[97\% \] bound to the haemoglobin. The transportation of oxygen within the human body occurs through convection and diffusion processes.

Complete Answer:
Heme is the portion of haemoglobin and contains iron. Heme binds to the oxygen. Each molecule of Haemoglobin carries up to four oxygen molecules. Oxygen diffuses across the respiratory membrane from the alveolus to the capillary, and also diffuses into RBC bound by Haemoglobin. The final product, oxyHaemoglobin \[Hb - {O_2}\] formed after oxygen binds to Haemoglobin \[Hb + {O_2} \leftrightarrow Hb - {O_2}\]
Hb is the reduced Haemoglobin which does not contain oxygen.

Function of Haemoglobin:
- It is composed of protein structure that is referred to as a quaternary structure.
- Binding of the first molecule of oxygen causes conformational change in Haemoglobin and this change allows the oxygen second molecule to bind more readily.
- Until all four sites of heme are occupied, this process continues for the binding.
- Haemoglobin becomes saturated after all four sites are occupied.
- Carbon dioxide is transported through three major mechanics:
- In the first mechanism, carbon dioxide transport occurs by blood plasma because some carbon dioxide molecules dissolve in blood.
- In the second mechanism, \[HC{O_3}\] (bicarbonate) transports after they dissolve in plasma.
- In the third mechanism, carbon dioxide transport is similar as the transport of oxygen through erythrocytes.

Note: OxyHaemoglobin is a bright red-colored substance. It is produced after the great combination of Haemoglobin and oxygen. The formation of oxyHaemoglobin occurs in the pulmonary capillaries.