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Explain the nervous system with the help of a suitable diagram. Explain the importance of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

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Last updated date: 29th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: This is the command center of our body. It originates from our brain and controls our movements, thoughts and automatic responses to the world around us.

Correct answer:
A system in our body that maintains the internal order of our body by coordinating the activities of muscles and organs, receives input from sense organs, triggers reactions, generates learning and understanding, and provides protection from danger. This is mainly conducted through electrochemical signaling between nerves and other cells. The input of vision and touch from the outside environment is sent to the brain from the peripheral nervous system where they are quickly processed and connected to nerves. Then the signal is sent by the brain to various other parts of the body.

Additional Information:
-In humans, the nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord along with the primary sense organs and all the nerves associated with these primary sense organs.
-The nervous system of our body can be divided into two parts: central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS).
-The brain and spinal cord together constitute the central nervous system whereas neurons within sense organs, other sensory nerves, and all motor nerves that deliver messages to different parts of the body together constitute the peripheral nervous system.
-The brain can be divided further into three parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.
-The peripheral nervous system can be subdivided into two parts: the somatic nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system.
-The somatic nervous system contains the nerves which transport somatic signals.
-The autonomous signals which act on glands, smooth muscle, and other parts are sent by the autonomic nervous system.
-Importance of the hypothalamus: The secretions from the pituitary gland are controlled by the hypothalamus. It also controls our hunger and thirst. It also helps in the process of memorization and stress control.
-Importance of Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is responsible for the secretion of growth hormone which controls the growth of our body. The secretions from other glands are also controlled by the secretions of the pituitary gland.

Note:
-The nervous system is a very complex system for coordinating an animal’s behavior and helping it navigate and react to the surrounding environment.
-Within the cranial cavity the brain is situated and it weighs less than 1.5 kgs.
-With the help of its connections with the pituitary gland the hypothalamus also modulates the endocrine system.
-The pituitary is additionally called the master gland of our body because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands.
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