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Explain the mechanism of hereditary changes.

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Hereditary changes can be defined as the changes that can occur during the process of transmission of the characters from the parents to the offspring through the mode of reproduction.

Complete answer:
The mechanism of hereditary changes includes:
Natural Selection- it is used to define the process when one allele is chosen over another in the population as it provides a survival advantage. For example, penguins can’t fly as it will consume a lot of energy, hence their survival features aiding in swimming are promoted by nature.
Genetic Drift- it is the sudden change in a small population due to which genetic variability is decreased.
Mutations- these are sudden and inheritable changes in the genetic material that gives rise to a new allele with new characteristics. For example, sickle-cell anemia is a disease caused by the mutation in a gene that monitors the structure of hemoglobin.
Recombination- it takes place during the crossing over occurs during meiosis. It causes the sequence of alleles to change in the chromosomes. The most important examples of recombination happen during prophase I of meiosis when homologous chromosomes line up in pairs and swap segments of DNA.

Note: Hereditary changes are the main factor responsible for an evolution in organisms. Many changes occur in organisms as a means of a better chance of survival which is made possible by hereditary changes as these can be carried forward by the offspring. Hereditary changes also encourage speciation in all organisms through various means.