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Explain in detail the processes involved in the production of pig iron and steel.

Last updated date: 22nd Jun 2024
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Hint: : In pig iron process, smelting of iron is done with high carbon fuel and reductant like coke. Pig iron consists of iron in maximum amounts. In this process impurities are removed from sourced iron.

Complete step by step answer:
Pig iron is defined as the intermediate product of the iron industry which is used for the production of steel that is also known as crude iron, that is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig iron contains a very high content of carbon around $3.8$ to $4.7%$ . It is also produced by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces. Pig iron contains around $92%$ of iron. It is defined as a solid form of hot metal which is obtained from scrap recycling or iron core. Pig iron can be moulded into different types of shapes.
Steel making is defined as a process used for the production of steel from scrap and iron ore. In this process, impurities like sulphur, nitrogen, silicon and excess carbonate are removed from sourced iron. Siemens – Martin and Bessemer have turned steel making into a heavy industry. But in today’s time, the modern process is used in the production of steel.
They are categorized into two types:
1.Primary process: In primary process, the liquid iron is converted into steel using blast furnace
2.Secondary process: In secondary process, this requires refining of crude steel before casting. In this, alloying agents are added.

Note: For steel making, blast furnaces and scraps are used.Its carbon content is $3.8$ to $4.7%$ and its iron content is $92%$ . and impurities removed are sulphur, nitrogen, silicon from sourced iron.