Removal of poverty has been the biggest challenge in India. The Indian government is dealing the same with two methods – by promoting economic growth and by anti-poverty programmes.
The major anti-poverty programmes suggested by the Govt. of India are as follows:
1. Integrated Rural Development Programme:
It was introduced in the year 1978-79 and universalized from 2nd October, 1980. The main aim is to provide support to the rural poor in the form of subsidy and bank credit for productive work opportunities through successive plan periods.
2. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana /Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY):
Two new schemes, namely, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) were merged in the year1989, under Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). The purpose was to generate good work prospects for the unemployed in rural areas by creating economic infrastructure, community and social assets. From the year 1999, this old scheme started again with a new name as Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY), mainly for rural economic infrastructure programme with the purpose of employ¬ment generation.
3. Employment Assurance Scheme:
This scheme was launched in the year 1993. It mainly covers drought-prone, desert, tribal and hill area blocks. In the year1997-98, it extended to several other blocks. Employment assurance scheme was planned for creating employment opportunity in the form of manual work when there is no agricultural season. It was expected to lead to the creation of robust economic and social infrastruc¬ture and address the needs of people.
4. Food for Work Programme:
In the year 2000, the Food for Work Programme was started as a component of EAS. It started with some major drought-affected states, namely Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Orrisa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Chhattisgarh. The main aim is to enhance food security through wage employment.
5. Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana:
The new Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) Scheme started in 2001 was the mix of old JGSY, EAS and Food for Work Programme. The primary aim of the scheme was the generation of wage employment, creation of good economic infrastructure in rural areas as well as food provision and nutrition security for the underdeveloped.
6. Rural Housing – Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana (PMGAY):
PMGAY is a government flagship programme, created for providing housing for the Indian rural poor. A similar scheme for urban poor was launched in 2015 as Housing for All. For BPL population, similar program was launched by late PM Rajiv Gandhi, known as Indira Awaas Yojana which was one of the major flagship programs.
7. National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS):
NOAPS came into effect from the year 1995. Providing pension to old people above now 60, who does not have any means of subsistence is the main aim of this project. It is provided by the central government. Implementation of this scheme in places is given to panchayats and municipalities.
8. National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS):
NFBS was started in the year 1995 and is sponsored state governments, under community and rural department. They provide certain amount to a member of family who becomes the head of the family after the death of its primary breadwinner.
9. National Maternity Benefit Scheme :
NMBS provides certain amount grant mother in three instalments. The women must be older than 19 years. It is normally provided eighth to twelfth weeks before the birth of child. And in case of the death of the child, the women can still avail it.