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Explain a disease is caused due to deficiency of vasopressin.

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Vasopressin hormone is mainly responsible for regulating the tonicity of body fluids as well as it regulates the circadian rhythm (i.e) the periods of the sleepiness and wakefulness in a 24-hour cycle.

Complete answer:
-Vasopressin is a small, naturally occurring polypeptide hormone which is synthesized by the hypothalamus of the brain, and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
-The most important function of Vasopressin is its antidiuretic action that acts on the cells of the collecting ducts in the kidney which allows it to perform cellular function. This hormone helps to allow water to enter on the cell surface of tubular cells from nephron by making the kidneys to reabsorb the soluble-free water from the urine and return or release it back into the circulation. Thus, this hormone plays a key role in maintaining osmolality in which it concentrates the dissolved particles of urinary content such as salts, glucose in the serum and maintain to protect the cells from sudden increase or decrease in the volume of water. When this occurs, the urine volume is reduced and the urine is said to be concentrated.
-This hormone is also known as ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) which helps to increase blood pressure and maintain the proper urine flow from the kidneys as well as the body's internal temperature.
If there is any deficiency in the secretion of vasopressin hormone, then it leads to excretion of too much water from the kidneys which thereby causes dehydration and frequent urination. Such conditions can even cause low blood pressure. Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water to send it back into the bloodstream due to lack of ADH.
-Deficiency of ADH (i.e.) vasopressin can be caused due to damage in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, or drinking too much water etc. If this condition is left untreated, it results in dehydration, hypovolemia, hyperosmolality, diabetes insipidus and many other life-threatening situations in severe cases.

Note: Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and a neurotransmitter that is secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is found at the basal portion of the brain. This hormone is also referred to as "cuddle hormone" or the "love hormone" because it gets produced when people bond socially to build their relationship. This hormone is also involved in childbirth and breast-feeding.