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Electron affinity is defined as?

Last updated date: 20th Mar 2023
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Hint: We know that the electron affinity is the potential energy change of the particle when an electron is added to an unbiased vaporous iota to frame a negative particle. So the more adverse the electron liking the more great the electron expansion measure is. Not all components structure stable negative particles in which case the electron proclivity is zero or even certain.

Complete answer:
We also need to know that the electron affinity of an iota or particle is characterized as the measure of energy delivered when an electron is appended to an unbiased molecule or atom in the vaporous state to shape a negative particle.
\[X\left( g \right) + {e^ - } \to {X^ - }\left( g \right) + energy\]
The measure of energy delivered when an electron is added to a nonpartisan iota to shape an anion is called electron liking. Electron affinities are hard to gauge. Electron affinity increments going left to directly across a period. The general pattern across a period happens in light of expanded atomic fascination. Going down the group the electron liking should diminish since the electron is being added progressively further away from the particle. Less firmly bound and thus closer in energy to a free electron.

Now we can discuss about the components affecting electron affinity as,
1. Nuclear size: If the nuclear size is little, at that point there will be more noteworthy electrons acquired enthalpy on the grounds that the successful atomic powers will be more prominent in the more modest particles and the electrons will be held solidly.
2. Atomic charge: The more noteworthy the atomic charge more will be the incentive for electrons to acquire enthalpy in light of the fact that an expansion in atomic charge will expand the viable atomic power on valence electrons.