An electric circuit is composed of electronic components and carries electric current through its conducting wires. It consists of any individual components such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, electric cells or batteries, voltmeter, transistors, etc.Complete answer:
An electric circuit is used to operate and to connect different individual electronic components such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, electric cells or batteries, transistors, FETs, MOSFETs, voltmeter, ammeter, etc to one another using conducting wires.
A typical example of an electric circuit is shown in the figure below, it consists of an electric cell E, a resistor R and a voltmeter V, and they are connected to each other by individual pieces of wires. Current flows from the positive terminal of the electric cell around the circuit to the negative terminal of the electric cell.
There are three types of electric circuits, analog circuits, digital circuits and mixed circuits.
1. Analog circuits- They are circuits in which current and voltage varies with time depending on the input. The electronic components are either connected in series or in parallel. In a series circuit, the current is same but voltage different for the electronic components and in parallel circuits, the current is different but voltage same for the electronic components. The basic components in an analog circuit are resistors, inductor, capacitors, diodes, electric cells or batteries.
2. Digital circuits- They are circuits in which electric signals are discreet, they represent logical values and numeric values. The high output voltage is considered logic ‘1’ and low output voltage near ground voltage is considered logic ‘0’. These circuits use electronic components such as transistors and logic gates (AND, OR gates). Digital circuits are used to create computing chips, microprocessors, etc.
3. Mixed circuits- These circuits consist of both analog circuits components and digital circuits components.
Thus, an electric circuit provides a path for electric current which passes through the electronic components connected to each other using wires. Note:
In an electric circuit, the combination of electronic components and wires are connected and perform various operations like amplifying signals, mathematical operations, etc. Kirchhoff's laws to calculate the current and voltage in the circuits should be remembered.