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What is the DNA copying? State its importance.

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint: A process where a DNA molecule produces two similar copies of itself in a reproducing cell. It occurs in all living organisms and is the core of biological inheritance.

Complete answer:
DNA copying is literally known as DNA replication which happens every time prior to mitosis or meiosis. It is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule replicates to produce two similar DNA molecules. Through the situation of cell division, the DNA replicates itself. When the hydrogen bond linking the cells is split, the DNA takes a two-strand shape. This shape gets divided and new DNA strands initiate to form.
Importance of DNA copying:
-It makes the transfer of characteristics from parents to the next generation viable.
-It triggers variation in the population.

Additional Information:
 The replication process depends on the certainty that each DNA strand can help as a template for duplication. It begins at specific points known as origins; where the DNA double helix is uncoil. A small section of RNA is called primer which acts as a beginning point for new DNA formation. An enzyme called DNA polymerase starts DNA replication by complementing bases to the original strand. Once synthesis is finished, the RNA primers are restored with DNA. Any gaps in the newly formed DNA segments are closed with enzymes.
It is a critical process; therefore, to ensure that mistakes or mutations are not there, the cell checks the newly synthesized DNA. Once the DNA in a cell is copied, the cell can part into two cells, each having an identical copy of the original DNA. It is a biologic polymerization which begins in the series of initiation, elongation, and termination. This whole cycle occurs with the help of enzymes and the main enzyme is DNA-dependent polymerase.
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Note: Replication is a vital process as whenever a cell cleaves, the two new daughter cells must hold the same DNA, as the parent cell. If there is no replication then the cells have no genetic material which will not make crucial proteins for the proper functioning of the body.