Distinguish between the following: (a)Hibernation and Aestivation (b)Ectotherms and Endotherms
Hint: (a) Hibernation and aestivation both require escape in time but hibernation is winter sleep and aestivation is summer sleep. The energy is saved in both cases by reducing activity. (b) Ectotherms body temperature changes with external temperature meaning they conform (change to the environment). Endothermic organisms regulate (keep their body at a continuing phase) meaning they do not change with external temperature.
Complete answer: (a)
Hibernation is a state of decreased activity in some organisms to escape cold winter conditions.
Aestivation is a state of decreased activity in some organisms to escape desiccation due to heat in summers.
It takes place for a long duration.
It takes place for a quite smaller duration.
Bears and squirrels hamper cold regions are examples of animals that hibernate throughout winters.
Fishes and snails are examples of organisms aestivating throughout summers.
Ectotherms are cold-blooded animals. Their temperature differed with their surroundings.
Endotherms are warm-blooded animals. They maintain persistent body temperature.
Ectotherms typically have lower metabolic rates than endotherms at a particular body mass.
Endotherms typically have higher metabolic rates than ectotherms at a particular body mass.
Examples are fishes, amphibians, and reptiles are ectothermic animals.
Examples are birds and mammals are endothermic animals.
Additional Information: In mammals, two different homeostatic mechanisms are involved in thermoregulation—one mechanism increases body temperature, while the other decreases it. The presence of two separate mechanisms provides a really high degree of control. This is often important because the core temperature of mammals can be controlled to be as close as possible to the optimum temperature for enzyme activity.
Note: Hibernation functions to conserve energy when sufficient food is unavailable. to realize this energy-saving, an endothermic animal decreases its metabolic rate and thereby its body temperature. Depression of metabolic rate during aestivation causes a reduction in macromolecule synthesis and degradation.
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