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Distinguish between Mitosis and Meiosis.

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Last updated date: 05th Mar 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: A cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell as it grows and divides into daughter cells. The first phase is interphase and it is considered to be the longest phase and during this time it grows, replicates its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division. The cell then enters into interphase, undergoes mitosis, and completes its division.

Complete answer:
Cells multiply and reproduce in two ways-mitosis and meiosis.
Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in the formation of two daughter cells each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell.

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MitosisMeiosis
It was discovered by Walther FlemmingIt was discovered by Oscar Hertwig
This type of cell division occurs in all types of cells, even sex cellsThis type of cell division occurs in meiocytes (specialized cells)
Mitosis occurs in somatic cellsMeiosis occurs in germ cells
Different stages are – Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophaseDifferent stages of meiosis are – Prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I and then enters into Meiosis II which includes the following phases Prophase II and then metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II.
Only one nuclear division occursTwo nuclear divisions occur
Chromosome number remains unaffectedChromosome number is reduced to half
Mother cell can either be haploid or diploidThe mother cell is always diploid
Mode of reproduction- Asexual Sexual
Cytokinesis occurs in telophaseCytokinesis occurs in Telophase I and II
No recombination.Recombination and crossing over take place between homologous chromosomes.


Note: In meiosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase occur twice. The first round of division is different from the second, the second round is much similar to mitosis. Both mitosis and meiosis occur in multiple stages including DNA replication and condensation, nuclear membrane degradation, spindle formation, chromosomal segregation, and nuclear reformation.