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How can you differentiate Riccia from Pinus?
A. Independent sporophyte
B. Vascular sporophyte
C. Dependent sporophyte
D. Dependent gametophyte

Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Hint: Riccia is a genus of liverworts in the order Marchantiales plants, which are not divided into root, stem and leaves, are small and thalloid. Pinus of the Pinaceae Family. In the subfamily Pinoideae, Pinus is the only genus.

Complete answer:
Riccia- Plants are normally monoic, and antheridia and archegonia are used for sexual reproduction. Spores, division of the rosettes, and the development of apical tubers cause asexual reproduction. In tetrads, spores are wide (45 to 200 μ) and shaped. The "slender riccia" (Riccia fluitans), which grows on moist soil or, less generally, floats in ponds and is often used in aquariums, is one of more than 100 species in this genus. The Riccia sporophyte is the simplest of the bryophytes. It consists of only one capsule and does not perform photosynthesis, lacking both foot and seta.
In aquatic types, rhizoids are almost absent, but on the ventral surface there are typically numerous unicellular rhizoids of two kinds. One kind is called smooth and the other kind is the pegged or tuberculated rhizoids; these assist in anchorage and absorption. The inner surface of the smooth rhizoids is smooth, while there would be internal cell wall projections for the tuberculate rhizoid.
Pinus- Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. The lumber derived from pine trees may also apply to pine; pine is one of the wood types used as lumber that is more commonly used. Pines are long-lived and usually exceed 100-1,000 years of age, some more than that. In Fibonacci number ratios, the spiral growth of roots, needles, and cone scales may be arranged. The new spring shoots are often called "candles"; they are coated at first in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward, then turn green later and spread outward.
Sporophyte, the nonsexual phase (or an entity representing the phase) in the alternation of generations in plants and some algae, a phenomenon in which two distinct phases occur in the organism's life cycle, each phase creating the other. Riccia's sporophyte is the simplest type since the structure is only represented by a capsule without any foot and seta. It is a non-vascular sporophyte, thus. The pinus and the vascular sporophyte are well established.

Hence, the correct answer is (B) Vascular sporophyte.

The character and relative extent of the two phases vary considerably between various plant and algae groups. The sporophyte process has gradually increased over the course of evolution. The sporophyte is thus the dominant step in the life cycle in the higher (i.e., vascular) plants, while the gametophyte remains dominant in the more primitive nonvascular plants (bryophytes).