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Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis with one example each.

Last updated date: 18th Apr 2024
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Hint: Catalysts are the species that are added in order to increase the rate of reaction. These species help in increasing the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed. Enzymes and proteins present in our body also act as catalysts.

Complete answer:
We know catalysts are the substances that speed up the reactions. In this question, we have to define homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysis refers to the reactions in which the catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants or products. Examples of homogenous catalysis are acid catalysis, organometallic catalysis, and enzymatic catalysis. For example Hydrolysis of sucrose using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst.
${C_{12}}{H_{22}}{O_{11}}\left( {aq} \right)\xrightarrow{{dil.HCl\left( {aq} \right)}}{C_6}{H_{12}}{O_6}\left( {aq} \right)\begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
\end{array} + \begin{array}{*{20}{c}}
  {}&{{C_6}{H_{12}}{O_6}\left( {aq} \right)}
Sucrose Glucose Fructose
Heterogeneous catalysis describes the process catalysts are of different phase than reactants or products. This type of catalysis involves solid and gas phase catalysts. For example: In formation of ammonia iron is used as catalyst ${N_2}\left( g \right) + 3{H_2}\left( g \right)\xrightarrow{{Fe\left( s \right)}}2N{H_3}\left( g \right)$
Nickel is used as catalyst in dehydrogenation of ethanol.
$C{H_3}C{H_2}OH\xrightarrow{{Ni}}C{H_3}CHO + {H_2}$
Additional information:
 Working with a catalyst: A catalyst does not get self-consumed in the reaction but makes the reactants react faster by reducing their activation energy or changing the mechanism. Also, it can make a reaction to react at a lower temperature than the original reaction would have taken without the catalyst.
Some natural catalysts are also present in our body in the form of enzymes that speeds up our metabolic function such as digestion. If these enzymes were not present in our body then food will take so long to digest in our body system. Example: Amylase, Protease, Lipase.

That IUPAC name of catalyst is cupric chloride $\left( {CuC{l_2}} \right)$ and it is not consumed in the reaction and in the specific process like deacon’s process, only this catalyst is used so other compound having the same property can’t be the answer. Deacon’s process is mainly used to produce chlorine commercially.

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