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When did the Battle of Patan take place?
A) $1786$
B) $1788$
C) $1790$
D) $1798$

Last updated date: 13th Jul 2024
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Hint: The Marathas' territorial aspirations had suffered a major setback with the decisive defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat. With the conquest of Gwalior in $1783$, however, Maratha chieftain Madhavrao Scindia reasserted Maratha control over much of Northern India, especially Rajputana.

Complete answer:
The Battle of Patan was fought on June $20$, $1790$, between the Maratha Kingdom of Gwalior, backed by Peshwa & Holkar, and the Rajput Kingdom of Jaipur, Kingdom of Jodhpur, and Mughals, led by Ismail Beg, resulting in a decisive Maratha victory.

Rajputs and their allies retired to their respective camps as dusk fell. The Maratha army, on the other hand, remained at the pass's mouth. The real war, however, began in the evening after an unplanned skirmish. Some Maratha Pindaris from the left-wing of the Maratha lines were successful in seizing animals from Ismail Beg's contingent. This invariably resulted in a minor brawl with Ismail Beg's men.

The guns of General de Boigne were then aimed at Ismail Beg's force. The murderous fire of Maratha guns proved deadly when they were caught off guard. Sensing victory, Gopal Bhau and de Boigne went for the kill. The Marathas attacked enemy camps. Rajput resistance capitulated, taken aback by the suddenness and ferocity of the Maratha attack; many were slaughtered in their sleep, while others were too drunk to fight. The Rathor charge on the Maratha right wing was the only noteworthy occurrence. Gopal Bhau's fast reinforcements rescued the $4,000$-strong Holkar contingent.

The two battalions sent by Boigne pushed the Jaipur Nagas into their positions. After routing the alliance's centre and left-wing, De Boigne directed all of his forces to the right. The Rathors were quickly surrounded and routed, with heavy casualties and the death of Jodhpur's general Gangaram. Apart from two wounded soldiers, the Gwalior army suffered no losses.

The victory at Patan destroyed the armies of India's two most powerful Rajput kingdoms, forcing them to pay the Peshwas and Scindias large tributes.

Thus the correct answer is option ‘C’.

Note: Ismail Beg's army was reduced to a few hundred men and forced to leave as well. This victory also demonstrated to the rest of the subcontinent that Maratha influence had not waned since Panipat, and it aided in the consolidation of Maratha rule in northern India.