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Describe Malpighian body. Explain its role in urine formation.

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Hint: Malpighian body is the part of a nephron in the kidney. It consists of its cup-shaped end together with the glomerulus that it encloses. The Malpighian body filtrates the blood and separates waste from the blood.

Complete answer:
In this question, we have asked about the Malpighian bodies and its function. Malpighian bodies are found in nephrons in the kidney. The Malpighian capsule consists of Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus.

As we know, the glomerulus is made up of capillaries. These capillaries receive blood from the afferent arteriole and transport it to the efferent arteriole. The blood then diffuses into the Bowman's capsule by crossing 3 layers: endothelium of glomerulus, basement membrane of the glomerulus and the epithelium of Bowman's capsule. When blood comes into Bowman's capsule through glomerulus, only the small molecules and water are allowed to pass through these three membranes.

So, the filtered blood from the glomerulus reaches Bowman's capsule. It is made up of a double layer called the parietal layer and the visceral membrane. A cell named podocytes is present in the Bowman's capsule, which has spaces between them. The glomerular filtrate is now filtered by these podocytes and the blood cells are retained within the glomerulus and the Malpighian body filters this blood so that the waste can be separated from the blood. The filtrate further moves to tubules and the rest process of urine formation occurs.

Note: Malpighian bodies are different from Malpighian tubules. Malpighian bodies are found in the kidneys of humans and Maldivian tubules are found in insects but both have the same function i.e excretion.
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